Chapter 1 ATTP Commanders achieve prevention by planning and implementing security programs that are designed to prevent the effects of hazards and threats before they occur. Programs and activities such as antiterrorism, operations security, information operations, physical security, and crime prevention contribute to prevention efforts. Threats against personnel, resources, and installations can be greatly reduced when commanders establish robust security programs.
ATTP 3-39.32 Physical Security
Aggressive access control operations deter adversaries from attempting unauthorized entry to bases. Hardened fortifications and well-trained and -equipped security forces reduce the likelihood that a base will become a target, and they can cause adversaries to choose a less defended target. These security measures protect personnel, critical assets, and installations and typically form the first line of defense against threats. Commanders in all operational environments protect personnel, assets, and installations by maintaining a security force with the ability to detect, interdict, disrupt, and defeat hazards and threats.
Even the most sophisticated ESS requires a well-trained, ready force to respond to, assess, and control the incident. Security personnel are the human responses to unauthorized acts, and they are trained to apply the appropriate level of force lethal and nonlethal to protect people, resources, information, and facilities.
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Mitigation consists of the activities and efforts that have the ability to minimize the consequences of attacks and designated emergencies on personnel, physical assets, and information. Commanders restore and safeguard forces through effective consequence management. Damage assessments, site security, personnel recovery, and decontamination contribute to restoration efforts.
Together, these activities speed recovery and help the community return to normal operations. Successful protection is characterized by the integration of five principles—full dimension, layered, redundant, integrated, and enduring.
These principles are not applied the same way in every situation, but provide commanders a context for planning protection efforts, developing protection strategies, and allocating resources see FM Not surprisingly, effective physical security measures parallel these principles and integrate many of the same qualities. Protection is continuous and asymmetrical; it considers threats and hazards in all directions, at all times, and in all environments. Likewise, security efforts must be designed to deter, detect, delay, and disrupt threats and hazards in all directions, at all times, in all environments.
Protection capabilities are layered to provide strength and depth to the overall protection system and reduce the effects of a hazard or threat. Physical security efforts emphasize the concept of defense in depth by placing the asset to be protected in the innermost ring of security.
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The layers of security are provided at increasing distances from the protected asset. The number of layers, the components that comprise them, and their resistance to penetration depend on the threat and the importance of the asset to be protected. Redundancy ensures that critical activities, systems, and capabilities have a secondary or backup system of equal or greater capability. Protection efforts are often redundant and overlapping anywhere that vulnerability, weakness, or failure is identified or expected. Security measures are often planned in the same manner with backup capabilities.
For example, restricted facilities are typically augmented by alarm systems with assessment capabilities and physically checked by trained security personnel. ACPs often employ obstacles, active and passive barriers, vehicle-arresting systems, and final denial barriers to control, stop, and defeat a threat vehicle. Protection is integrated with all other activities, systems, efforts, and capabilities that are associated with military operations to provide strength and structure to the overall protection effort.
When a capability is lacking, commanders establish memorandums of agreement with local or host nation HN agencies to fill security gaps and integrate existing resources. Protection has an enduring quality that differentiates it from the conduct of defense or specific security operations. Physical security efforts are continuous, and some security measures are more enduring than others. The degrees of protection may increase or decrease, depending on the current threat assessment.
However, security personnel and resources must be able to maintain a reasonable level of protection for extended periods. Physical security policies, procedures, and systems are nested in, and support, several key tasks of protection, including operations security, antiterrorism, operational area security, survivability, and information protection. Operations security is a process of identifying essential elements of friendly information and subsequently analyzing friendly actions attendant to military operations and other activities to identify those actions that can be observed by adversary intelligence systems, determine indicators hostile intelligence systems might obtain that could be interpreted or pieced together to derive critical information in time to be useful to adversaries, and select and execute measures that eliminate or reduce to an acceptable level the vulnerabilities of friendly actions to adversary exploitation.
FM Operations security is one of the core elements of information operations, and physical security is a supporting element see AR Effective antiterrorism programs synchronize intelligence, composite risk management, and existing security programs to provide a holistic approach to defend against terrorist threats. The physical security officers PSOs provide assistance in the defensive planning, implementation, and control for antiterrorism operations. Commanders rely on the PSO to conduct the comprehensive evaluation of units, facilities, and installations to determine the preparedness to deter, withstand, and recover from the full range of adversarial capabilities based on the threat assessment, crime and criminal threat analysis, compliance with protection standards, and risk management.
Crime and criminal threat analysis is a continuous process of compiling and examining available information concerning potential criminal threat activities. Criminal and terrorist groups or individuals may target U. Crime threat analysis techniques are described in FM Physical security systems installed in and around installations, facilities, and units form the physical backbone of antiterrorism efforts. The facilities, equipment, and personnel that form the installation security force are critical resources that help defend against terrorist attacks.
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Operational area security is a form of active security operations conducted to protect friendly forces, installations, routes, and actions within an area of operations. Designated security forces such as military police saturate an area or position on key terrain to provide protection through early warning, reconnaissance, or surveillance, and guard against unexpected enemy attacks. FM describes the tactics, techniques, and procedures for base defense, perimeter defense, and area security operations.
Area security efforts take advantage of the local security measures performed by units, regardless of their location in the area of operations. Physical security measures such as access control operations protect installations, facilities, and units from unauthorized access. Physical security plans, programs, and procedures are specifically designed to protect restricted areas. A restricted area is any area to which entry is subject to special restrictions or control for security reasons or to safeguard property or material.
Security personnel patrol the installation or facility and respond to unauthorized acts, conduct security checks of restricted areas, and investigate suspicious activity. Survivability includes all aspects of protecting personnel, weapons, and resources.
ATTP 3-39.32 Physical Security
Physical security efforts contribute to survivability operations by providing an integrated and multilayered defense in depth. Engineers install perimeter barriers—such as preformed concrete barriers, wire, and fencing material—that are designed to prevent unauthorized intrusions into fixed sites. Perimeter security efforts, such as intrusion detection and electronic surveillance, provide early warning and alert security forces of unauthorized attempts to enter controlled areas.
Barrier plans are developed to block high-speed avenues of approach to high-risk targets. Access control systems ACSs such as cargo X-ray systems, explosive detection devices, and chemical sensors reduce vulnerabilities to explosives and chemical hazards. Information protection includes active or passive measures that protect and defend friendly information and information systems to ensure timely, accurate, and relevant friendly information protection. The threat to automated information systems and information systems security involves deliberate, overt, and covert acts.
This includes the physical threat to tangible property, such as the theft or destruction of computer hardware and communications systems. Also included is the threat of electronic, electromagnetic pulse, radio frequency RF , or computer-based attacks on the information or communications components that control or make up critical Army command and control infrastructures.
Data links used to communicate sensitive information must be protected from compromise. Attempts to defeat the security system may range from simple efforts to cut or short the transmission line to more sophisticated attempts, such as tapping and substituting bogus signals. Data links are made more secure by physical protection, tamper protection, line supervision, and encryption.
As one of the critical supporting activities of information protection, physical security prevents unauthorized physical access to personnel, equipment, installations, materiel, and documents.
Effective physical security ensures the availability of information systems used to conduct operations. Commanders conduct physical security operations to safeguard resources, including information and information systems. Properly integrated, physical security complements the other information operations elements. Physical security specialists assigned to the provost marshal staff, or designated security office staff, identify vulnerable areas and recommend appropriate countermeasures.
They also provide assessments of unit physical security measures. The assistant chief of staff, information engagement G-7 , synchronizes physical security measures with other information protection efforts. First-line leaders ensure that Soldiers know regulatory requirements, understand how physical security measures protect information and information systems, and learn to recognize potential problem areas in physical and information security.
Physical security plans encompassing the security of information systems should be coordinated with, or reviewed by, the unit information assurance officer. The installation commander appoints, in writing, an installation PSO who reports through channels to the commander or deputy commander on all matters related to physical security see AR The provost marshal may serve as the PSO staff member of the division or corps protection cell.
The training requirements for the PSO include a wide range of knowledge and skills. In addition to security and law enforcement skills, the PSO should be thoroughly knowledgeable in all aspects of threat assessment and risk analysis.
Army Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures ATTP (FM ) Physical Security
The results of these processes are the basis for planning physical security programs. The PSO or physical security inspector conducts risk analysis for assets of all assigned units and activities, maintaining particular categories of Army assets described in AR and other assets designated as mission essential by AR Risk analysis is also conducted for the assets of units and activities before they occupy new or renovated facilities.
Understanding the basic principles of security engineering is important for the PSO to ensure that security needs are addressed during the initial planning and design of facilities, ACPs, and controlled areas where there is a need for physical security systems.
Related Army Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures ATTP 3-39.32 (FM 3-19.30) Physical Security
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